In March, an important milestone for machine learning was accomplished: a computer program called AlphaGo beat one of the best Go players in the world—Lee Sedol—four times in a five-game series. At first blush, this win may not seem all that significant. After all, machines have been using their growing computing power for years to beat humans at games, most notably in 1997 when IBM’s Deep Blue beat world champ Garry Kasparov at chess. So why is the AlphaGo victory such a big deal?
The answer is two-fold. First, Go is a much harder problem for computers to solve than other games due to the massive number of possible board configurations. Backgammon has 1020 different board configurations, Chess has 1043 and Go has a whopping 10170 configurations. 10170 is an insanely large number—too big for humans to truly comprehend. The best analogy used to describe 10170 is that it is larger than the number of atoms in the universe. The reason that the magnitude of 10170 is so important is because it implies that if machine learning (ML) can perform better than the best humans for a large problem like Go, then ML can solve a new set of real-world problems that are far more complex than previously thought possible. This means that the potential that machine learning will impact our day-to-day lives in the near future just got a lot bigger.